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J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 14;136(1):75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.011. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Mitragynine inhibits the COX-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E₂ production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

Author information

1
Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals (IPharm), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Sains@USM Complex, 10, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

[corrected] Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat various types of diseases especially in Thailand and Malaysia. Its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in its crude form are well documented. In this study, the cellular mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of mitragynine, the major bioactive constituent, was investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The effects of mitragynine on the mRNA and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were investigated in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed using Western blot analysis and the level of PGE(2) production was quantified using Parameter™ PGE(2) Assay (R&D Systems).

RESULTS:

Mitragynine produced a significant inhibition on the mRNA expression of COX-2 induced by LPS, in a dose dependent manner and this was followed by the reduction of PGE(2) production. On the other hand, the effects of mitragynine on COX-1 mRNA expression were found to be insignificant as compared to the control cells. However, the effect of mitragynine on COX-1 protein expression is dependent on concentration, with higher concentration of mitragynine producing a further reduction of COX-1 expression in LPS-treated cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that mitragynine suppressed PGE(2) production by inhibiting COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Mitragynine may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

PMID:
21513785
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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