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Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2010 Apr;10(1):74-9. Epub 2010 Apr 17.

Optimum anthropometric criteria for ideal body composition related fitness.

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Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.



The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI).


Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166-190 cm and aged 20-42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition "super body category". Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP.


The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6-6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height.


It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness.


Anthropometric; Body Composition; Resistance training

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