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JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011 Sep;35(5):616-24. doi: 10.1177/0148607110395512. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

Influence of adding pyrroloquinoline quinone to parenteral nutrition on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

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Department of Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.



Experimental intravenous (IV) parenteral nutrition (PN) diminishes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cell number and function. PN solution cannot maintain GALT at the same level as a normal diet, even when delivered intragastrically (IG). Previous studies demonstrated pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-deficient mice to be less immunologically responsive. Because standard (STD) PN solution lacks PQQ, PQQ supplementation may prevent PN-induced GALT changes. This study was designed to determine the influence of adding PQQ to PN on GALT.


In experiment 1, mice (n = 32) were randomized to chow, IV-STD-PN, and IV-PQQ-PN groups. The chow group was fed chow with the same caloric content as PN. The IV-STD-PN group received STD-PN solution, whereas the IV-PQQ-PN group was given PQQ (3 mcg/d)-enriched PN by the IV route. After 5 days of feeding, lymphocytes were isolated from the Peyer's patch (PPs), intraepithelial space (IE), and lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine. GALT lymphocyte number and phenotype (αβTCR+, γδTCR+, CD4+, CD8+, B220+ cells) and intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) level were determined. In experiment 2, mice (n = 28) were randomized to IG-STD-PN or IG-PQQ-PN group. After IG nutrition supports, GALT mass and function were determined as in experiment 1.


The IV-PQQ-PN group showed increased PP lymphocyte number and PP CD8+ cell number compared with the IV-STD PN group. The IG-PQQ-PN group had significantly greater PP lymphocyte number and PP CD4+ cell numbers than the IG-STD-PN group. Neither IV nor IG PQQ treatment raised IgA level.


PQQ added to PN partly restores GALT mass, although its effects on GALT function remain unclear.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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