Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011 Jul;99(1):75-80. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2011.04.004. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

d-Amphetamine stimulates unconditioned exploration/approach behaviors in crayfish: towards a conserved evolutionary function of ancestral drug reward.

Author information

Santa Lucia Foundation, European Centre for Brain Research (CERC), Via del Fosso di Fiorano 65, 00143 Rome, Italy.


In mammals, rewarding properties of drugs depend on their capacity to activate a dopamine-mediated appetitive motivational seeking state--a system that allows animals to pursue and find all kinds of objects and events needed for survival. With such states strongly conserved in evolution, invertebrates have recently been developed into a powerful model in addiction research, where a shared ancestral brain system for the acquisition of reward can mediate drug addiction in many species. A conditioned place preference paradigm has illustrated that crayfish seek out environments that had previously been paired with psychostimulant and opioid administration. The present work demonstrates that the administration of D-amphetamine stimulates active explorative behaviors in crayfish through the action of the drug within their head ganglion. Crayfish, with a modularly organized and experimentally accessible, ganglionic nervous system offers a unique model to investigate (1) the fundamental, biological mechanisms of addictive drug reward; (2) how an appetitive/seeking disposition is implemented in a simple neural system, and (3) how it mediates the rewarding actions of major drugs of abuse.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center