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Biophys J. 2011 Apr 20;100(8):2063-72. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2011.02.050.

Near-infrared fluorescence lifetime pH-sensitive probes.

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Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.


We report what we believe to be the first near-infrared pH-sensitive fluorescence lifetime molecular probe suitable for biological applications in physiological range. Specifically, we modified a known fluorophore skeleton, hexamethylindotricarbocyanine, with a tertiary amine functionality that was electronically coupled to the fluorophore, to generate a pH-sensitive probe. The pK(a) of the probe depended critically on the location of the amine. Peripheral substitution at the 5-position of the indole ring resulted in a compound with pK(a) ∼ 4.9 as determined by emission spectroscopy. In contrast, substitution at the meso-position shifted the pK(a) to 5.5. The resulting compound, LS482, demonstrated steady-state and fluorescence-lifetime pH-sensitivity. This sensitivity stemmed from distinct lifetimes for protonated (∼1.16 ns in acidic DMSO) and deprotonated (∼1.4 ns in basic DMSO) components. The suitability of the fluorescent dyes for biological applications was demonstrated with a fluorescence-lifetime tomography system. The ability to interrogate cellular processes and subsequently translate the findings in living organisms further augments the potential of these lifetime-based pH probes.

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