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J Agric Food Chem. 2011 May 25;59(10):5293-8. doi: 10.1021/jf104991z. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Role of the cultivar in choosing Clementine fruits with a high level of health-promoting compounds.

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Dipartimento di Biologia DBAF, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.


Thirteen cultivars and two hybrids of Clementine fruits (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex. Tan) cultivated in Italy were characterized according to pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, hesperidin, rutin, narirutin and naringin and radical scavenging activity. The presence of rutin in Clementine fruit juice is reported for the first time here. The results indicated that all chemical parameters statistically differentiated each cultivar (P < 0.001). In particular, principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of five cultivars from all the other varieties based on vitamin C and total polyphenols for the Caffin cultivar, which showed also the highest antioxidant activity; narirutin for the Etna hybrid cultivar; hesperidin, rutin and total soluble solids for the SRA 89 cultivar; and naringin, hesperidin and rutin for the Esbal cultivar. Moreover, the Mandalate hybrid cultivar showed the lowest antioxidant activity as well as vitamin C and total polyphenols content, while titratable acidity and naringin level were the highest. The antioxidant activity assessed in all the fruits was closely correlated with vitamin C and total polyphenols content, rather than with the flavonoid compounds.

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