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Opt Express. 2011 Apr 11;19(8):7530-6. doi: 10.1364/OE.19.007530.

Ultra-low power fiber-coupled gallium arsenide photonic crystal cavity electro-optic modulator.

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


We demonstrate a gallium arsenide photonic crystal cavity injection-based electro-optic modulator coupled to a fiber taper waveguide. The fiber taper serves as a convenient and tunable waveguide for cavity coupling with minimal loss. Localized electrical injection of carriers into the cavity region via a laterally doped p-i-n diode combined with the small mode volume of the cavity enable ultra-low energy modulation at sub-fJ/bit levels. Speeds of up to 1 GHz are demonstrated with photoluminescence lifetime measurements revealing that the ultimate limit goes well into the tens of GHz.

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