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Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Jul 15;82(2):167-74. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.03.032. Epub 2011 Apr 9.

Cyanidin-3-glucoside suppresses B[a]PDE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by directly inhibiting Fyn kinase activity.

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  • 1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (B[a]PDE) is a well-known carcinogen that is associated with skin cancer. Abnormal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important mediator in inflammation and tumor promotion. We investigated the inhibitory effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin present in fruits, on B[a]PDE-induced COX-2 expression in mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells. Pretreatment with C3G resulted in the reduction of B[a]PDE-induced expression of COX-2 and COX-2 promoter activity. The activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) induced by B[a]PDE was also attenuated by C3G. C3G attenuated the B[a]PDE-induced phosphorylation of MEK, MKK4, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), but no effect on the phosphorylation of the upstream MAPK regulator Fyn. However, kinase assays demonstrated that C3G suppressed Fyn kinase activity and C3G directly binds Fyn kinase noncompetitively with ATP. By using PP2, a pharmacological inhibitor for SFKs, we showed that Fyn kinase regulates B[a]PDE-induced COX-2 expression by activating MAPKs, AP-1 and NF-κB. These results suggest that C3G suppresses B[a]PDE-induced COX-2 expression mainly by blocking the activation of the Fyn signaling pathway, which may contribute to its chemopreventive potential.

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