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J Proteome Res. 2011 Jun 3;10(6):2734-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2003038. Epub 2011 May 9.

A comprehensive map of the human urinary proteome.

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Institute of Bioinformatics, International Technology Park, Bangalore 560066, Karnataka, India.


The study of the human urinary proteome has the potential to offer significant insights into normal physiology as well as disease pathology. The information obtained from such studies could be applied to the diagnosis of various diseases. The high sensitivity, resolution, and mass accuracy of the latest generation of mass spectrometers provides an opportunity to accurately catalog the proteins present in human urine, including those present at low levels. To this end, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of human urinary proteome from healthy individuals using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Importantly, we used the Orbitrap for detecting ions in both MS (resolution 60 000) and MS/MS (resolution 15 000) modes. To increase the depth of our analysis, we characterized both unfractionated as well as lectin-enriched proteins in our experiments. In all, we identified 1,823 proteins with less than 1% false discovery rate, of which 671 proteins have not previously been reported as constituents of human urine. This data set should serve as a comprehensive reference list for future studies aimed at identification and characterization of urinary biomarkers for various diseases.

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