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Clin Cancer Res. 2011 May 15;17(10):3455-68. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2209. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in DPYD and toxicity and efficacy of capecitabine in advanced colorectal cancer.

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Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.



To explore the effect of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and haplotypes on outcome of capecitabine.


Germline DNA was available from 568 previously untreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in the CAIRO2 trial, assigned to capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab ± cetuximab. The coding region of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) was sequenced in 45 cases with grade 3 or more capecitabine-related toxicity and in 100 randomly selected controls (cohort). Most discriminating (P < 0.1) or frequently occurring (>1%) nonsynonymous SNPs were analyzed in all 568 patients. SNPs and haplotypes were associated with toxicity, capecitabine dose modifications, and survival.


A total of 29 SNPs were detected in the case-cohort analysis, of which 8 were analyzed in all 568 patients. Of the patients polymorphic for DPYD IVS14+1G>A, 2846A>T, and 1236G>A, 71% (5 of 7), 63% (5 of 8), and 50% (14 of 28) developed grade 3 to 4 diarrhea, respectively, compared with 24% in the overall population. All patients polymorphic for IVS14+1G>A developed any grade 3 to 4 toxicity, including one possibly capecitabine-related death. Because of toxicity, a mean capecitabine dose reduction of 50% was applied in IVS14+1G>A and 25% in 2846A>T variant allele carriers. Patients were categorized into six haplotype groups: one predicted for reduced (10%), and two for increased risks (41% and 33%) for severe diarrhea. Individual SNPs were not associated with overall survival, whereas one haplotype was associated with overall survival [HR (95% CI) = 0.57 (0.35-0.95)].


DPYD IVS14+1G>A and 2846A>T predict for severe toxicity to capecitabine, for which patients require dose reductions. Haplotypes assist in selecting patients at risk for toxicity to capecitabine.

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