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Trends Biochem Sci. 2011 Jun;36(6):314-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2011.03.003. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

PAMPer and tRIGer: ligand-induced activation of RIG-I.

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Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, 30333, United States.


Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is an important component of the innate immune response to many RNA viruses that limits viral replication until adaptive immunity becomes available to clear the infection. Upon binding to the nucleic acid genomes and replication intermediates of these viruses, RIG-I undergoes a complex activation process that involves post-translational modifications and structural rearrangements. Once activated, RIG-I upregulates well-studied signal transduction pathways that lead to the production of type-I interferons (IFNs) and a large variety of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes. Thus, an effective antiviral response is dependent on the interaction between pathogen-derived ligands and RIG-I. Recent work has begun to clarify the required characteristics of RIG-I activators and is setting the stage for the identification of authentic ligands used during viral infection.

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