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Hum Pathol. 2011 Oct;42(10):1554-61. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.12.019. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Primary renal carcinoid tumors: clinicopathologic features of 9 cases with emphasis on novel immunohistochemical findings.

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Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.


Primary renal carcinoid tumors are rare neoplasms. Because of the rarity of these neoplasms, clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics have not been fully characterized. Immunohistochemistry for renal cell lineage transcription factors, such as paired box gene 2 and paired box gene 8, has not been studied in renal carcinoid tumors and may be useful in demonstrating nephrogenic differentiation. We studied the clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical features in 9 primary renal carcinoid tumors from multiple institutions with particular emphasis on immunohistochemical findings, in particular, expression of paired box gene 2 and paired box gene 8. All 9 cases expressed at least 1 neuroendocrine marker (CD56, synaptophysin, chromogranin). The renal-associated (paired box gene 2/paired box gene 8), gastrointestinal (caudal-related homeobox-2), and pulmonary/thyroid (thyroid transcription factor-1) transcription factors were not expressed in renal carcinoids (0/9). Of interest, CD99 was expressed in 8 of 9 cases, with the one negative case representing an atypical carcinoid. Perinephric extension and nodal and distant metastases are common. The absence of expression of paired box gene 2 and paired box gene 8, although not conclusive, supports the theory that these are derived from nonnephrogenic elements. CD99 was expressed in almost all cases (8/9); recognition of this could prevent misdiagnosis of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

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