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Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;30(3):267-72. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2011.02.009. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Insulin resistance of amino acid and protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

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Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Metabolism Division, University of Padova, Italy.


Although insulin resistance in T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) is usually referred to glucose and lipid metabolism, the question whether such a resistance affects also amino acid and protein metabolism is both relevant and not easy to be answered. Available data indicate a reduced response to insulin in the inhibition of proteolysis at low, near basal hormone levels, whereas such a response appears to be normal at high physiological doses. In most studies in T2DM subjects the stimulation of whole-body protein synthesis in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and euaminoacidemia appears to be normal, although one single study reported lower rates in male T2DM subjects with obesity. The response to insulin of plasma protein synthesis (albumin and fibrinogen) is also normal. However, some metabolic steps of amino acids related to vascular complications (methionine and arginine) exhibit a defective response to insulin in T2DM subjects with nephropathy. In summary, although gross alterations in the response of whole-body protein turnover are not evident in T2DM, specific investigations reveal subtle abnormalities in metabolic steps of selected amino acids. Furthermore, the effects of interaction between diabetes (with the associated insulin resistance) and older age in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in the elderly deserve more specific studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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