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J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011 Mar-Apr;34(3):195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2011.02.004.

The effects of a closed-chain, eccentric training program on hamstring injuries of a professional football cheerleading team.

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Sport and Spine Rehab Clinical Research Foundation, Rockville, MD, USA.



Hamstring injuries are a common occurrence among professional football cheerleaders. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention on hamstring injury-associated pain during the course of the football season among professional football cheerleaders.


Forty-three female cheerleaders participated in an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention protocol provided by doctors of chiropractic that incorporated loops of elastic-band or Thera-Band Loops (Hygenic Corporation, Akron, OH) during practice and at home during the regular football season. Hamstring injury-related pain was assessed in June, during team selection; in September, at the start of the season; and in December, at the end of season. No intervention was applied between June and September, although the sample participated in 4 hours of practice 2 to 3 times per week. The intervention was applied to the entire sample regardless of hamstring injury-related pain during the regular football season between September and December. The interventions included 2 exercises and were completed bilaterally 2 times per week at each biweekly practice and were encouraged to be done at least 3 additional times per week at home on nonpractice days.


Among the subsample who reported hamstring-related injury pain between June and September, the exercise intervention significantly decreased (P < .007) pain between September (6.07 ± 0.58) and December (3.67 ± 0.65).


The eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention reduced hamstring injury-related pain among this group of professional football cheerleaders.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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