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Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011 May-Jun;36(3):290-302. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e318217a9ed.

Needle to nerve proximity: what do the animal studies tell us?

Author information

1
Department of Anaesthesia, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Scotland, UK.

Abstract

Recent animal studies have provided insight and understanding, as well as promising clinical tools, to help identify needle-to-nerve contact and potentially hazardous intraneural injection. This narrative review describes and summarizes the contemporary animal studies primarily relating to indicators of needle-to-nerve contact and intraneural injection. Resultant nerve injury, whenever sought, is discussed.

PMID:
21490519
DOI:
10.1097/AAP.0b013e318217a9ed
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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