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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Jul;301(1):R236-43. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00414.2010. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Growth hormone-stimulated insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes is mediated by ERK, PI3K-AKT, and JAK-STAT.

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Dept. of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA.


Growth hormone (GH) initiates many of its growth-promoting actions by binding to GH receptors (GHR) and stimulating the synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from the liver and other sites. In this study, we used hepatocytes isolated from rainbow trout as a model system in which to determine the molecular signaling events of GH in fish. GH directly stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK, protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), JAK2, and STAT5 in hepatocytes incubated in vitro. Activation of ERK, Akt, JAK2, and STAT5 was rapid, occurring within 5-10 min, and was concentration dependent. GH-induced ERK activation was completely blocked by the ERK pathway inhibitor, U0126, and the JAK2 inhibitor, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexabromocyclohexane (Hex), and was partially blocked by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. GH-stimulated Akt activation was completely blocked by LY294002 and Hex, but was not affected by U0126; whereas, STAT5 activation by GH was blocked only by Hex, and was not affected by either U0126 or LY294002. GH stimulated hepatic expression of IGF-1 mRNA as well as the secretion of IGF-1, effects that were partially or completely blocked by U0126, LY294002, and Hex. These results indicate that GHR linkage to the ERK, PI3K/Akt, or STAT pathways in trout liver cells requires activation of JAK2, and that GH-stimulated IGF-1 synthesis and secretion is mediated through the ERK, PI3K/Akt, and JAK-STAT pathways.

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