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Blood. 2011 Jun 16;117(24):6721-7. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-03-339945. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Long-term follow-up of a comparison of nonmyeloablative allografting with autografting for newly diagnosed myeloma.

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Division of Hematology, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Torino, Via Genova 3, Turin, Italy.


Before the introduction of new drugs, we designed a trial where treatment of newly diagnosed myeloma patients was based on the presence or absence of HLA-identical siblings. First-line treatments included a cytoreductive autograft followed by a nonmyeloablative allograft or a second melphalan-based autograft. Here, we report long-term clinical outcomes and discuss them in the light of the recent remarkable advancements in the treatment of myeloma. After a median follow-up of 7 years, median overall survival (OS) was not reached (P = .001) and event-free survival (EFS) was 2.8 years (P = .005) for 80 patients with HLA-identical siblings and 4.25 and 2.4 years for 82 without, respectively. Median OS was not reached (P = .02) and EFS was 39 months (P = .02) in the 58 patients who received a nonmyeloablative allograft whereas OS was 5.3 years and EFS 33 months in the 46 who received 2 high-dose melphalan autografts. Among patients who reached complete remission in these 2 cohorts, 53% and 19% are in continuous complete remission. Among relapsed patients rescued with "new drugs," median OS from the start of salvage therapy was not reached and was 1.7 (P = .01) years, respectively. Allografting conferred a long-term survival and disease-free advantage over standard autografting in this comparative study.

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