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Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 15;69(12):1160-7. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.01.022. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Cingulate, frontal, and parietal cortical dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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Psychiatric Neuroscience Program, MGH–East, CNY2614, Building 149, Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.


Functional and structural neuroimaging have identified abnormalities of the brain that are likely to contribute to the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, hypofunction of the brain regions comprising the cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive-attention network have been consistently observed across studies. These are major components of neural systems that are relevant to ADHD, including cognitive/attention networks, motor systems, and reward/feedback-based processing systems. Moreover, these areas interact with other brain circuits that have been implicated in ADHD, such as the "default mode" resting state network. The ADHD imaging data related to cingulo-frontal-parietal network dysfunction will be selectively highlighted here to help facilitate its integration with the other information presented in this special issue. Together, these reviews will help shed light on the neurobiology of ADHD.

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