Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
BJOG. 2011 Jul;118(8):966-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02950.x. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Is mode of delivery associated with postpartum depression at 6 weeks: a prospective cohort study.

Author information

  • 1School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.



To examine the relationship between delivery mode and postpartum depression at 6 weeks following hospital discharge.


A prospective cohort study.


Eleven hospitals in Ontario, Canada.


A total of 2560 women ≥16 years of age who delivered singleton, live infants at term.


Women completed a questionnaire in hospital and 74% (n = 1897) participated in a structured telephone interview 6 weeks after discharge. Additional data were extracted from labour and delivery records. Generalised estimating equations (GEEs) were used to investigate factors associated with postpartum depression.


Women were screened for depression at 6 weeks following hospital discharge using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A score of ≥12 on the EPDS was used as a measure of the primary outcome, depression.


Mode of delivery was not independently associated with postpartum depression, and did not factor into the main-effects model. The multivariable analysis identified 11 predictor variables for depression: young maternal age (OR 5.27; 95% CI 2.73-10.15); maternal hospital readmission (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.46-6.24); non-initiation of breastfeeding (OR 2.02; 95% CI 0.99-4.11); good, fair, or poor self-reported postpartum health (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.19-2.80); urinary incontinence (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.06-3.03); multiparity (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.22-2.08); low mental health functioning (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.15-1.25); low subjective social status (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.02-1.33); high number of unmet learning needs in hospital (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.22); low social support (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09); and low physical health functioning (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.003-1.055). An exploratory interaction model revealed that caesarean section was associated with higher odds of becoming depressed in Canadian-born women, but that in women born outside of Canada it was associated with a lower risk of becoming depressed.


Delivery mode had no significant impact on the development of postpartum depression in the main-effects model. However, it may interact with place of birth and other unmeasured factors to create a risk for depression.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center