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Hepatology. 2011 Jul;54(1):173-84. doi: 10.1002/hep.24351.

Risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma.

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Section of Gastroenterology at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. CC accounts for approximately 10%-25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of CC. There are several established risk factors for CC, including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms. In studies where the distinction between intra- and extrahepatic CC was used, some potential risk factors seem to have a differential effect on CC, depending on the site. Therefore, the consistent use of a more refined classification would allow a better understanding of risk factors for CC.

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