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J Physiol. 2011 May 15;589(Pt 10):2515-28. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.206938. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Neural mechanism of activity spread in the cat motor cortex and its relation to the intrinsic connectivity.

Author information

1
Brain and Movement Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Section of Biomedical Engineering, Danish Technical University, Ørsteds Plads, Building 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. charles.capaday@ccapcable.com

Abstract

Motor cortical points are linked by intrinsic horizontal connections having a recurrent network topology. However, it is not known whether neural activity can propagate over the area covered by these intrinsic connections and whether there are spatial anisotropies of synaptic strength, as opposed to synaptic density. Moreover, the mechanisms by which activity spreads have yet to be determined. To address these issues, an 8 × 8 microelectrode array was inserted in the forelimb area of the cat motor cortex (MCx). The centre of the array had a laser etched hole ∼500 μm in diameter. A microiontophoretic pipette, with a tip diameter of 2-3 μm, containing bicuculline methiodide (BIC) was inserted in the hole and driven to a depth of 1200-1400 μm from the cortical surface. BIC was ejected for ∼2min from the tip of the micropipette with positive direct current ranging between 20 and 40 nA in different experiments. This produced spontaneous nearly periodic bursts (0.2-1.0 Hz) of multi-unit activity in a radius of about 400 μm from the tip of the micropipette. The bursts of neural activity spread at a velocity of 0.11-0.24 ms⁻¹ (mean=0.14 mm ms⁻¹, SD=0.05)with decreasing amplitude.The area activated was on average 7.22 mm² (SD=0.91 mm²), or ∼92% of the area covered by the recording array. The mode of propagation was determined to occur by progressive recruitment of cortical territory, driven by a central locus of activity of some 400 μm in radius. Thus, activity did not propagate as a wave. Transection of the connections between the thalamus and MCx did not significantly alter the propagation velocity or the size of the recruited area, demonstrating that the bursts spread along the routes of intrinsic cortical connectivity. These experiments demonstrate that neural activity initiated within a small motor cortical locus (≤ 400 μm in radius) can recruit a relatively large neighbourhood in which a variety of muscles acting at several forelimb joints are represented. These results support the hypothesis that the MCx controls the forelimb musculature in an integrated and anticipatory manner based on a recurrent network topology.

PMID:
21486763
PMCID:
PMC3115822
DOI:
10.1113/jphysiol.2011.206938
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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