Send to

Choose Destination
Saudi Med J. 2011 Apr;32(4):369-75.

Manipulation of flaxseed inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production in ovarian-induced osteoporosis.

Author information

Biochemical Nutrition, Food Science and Nutrition Department, Food Science & Agriculture Collage, King Saud University, PO Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



To evaluate the potential effects of whole flaxseed (FS), and/or flax oil (FO) incorporation into the diet on the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in ovariectomized (OVX) rats model of osteoporosis.


This study was performed in the Food Science & Agriculture Collage, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October to December 2009. Forty-eight, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: Group 1 - sham + control diet; Group 2 - OVX rats + basal diet; Group 3 - OVX + 20% whole FS; Group 4 - OVX rats + 40% FS; Group 5 - OVX rats + 5% FO; Group 6 - OVX rats + 10% FO. All OVX rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. The experiment was continued for 2 months. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and magnesium (Mg) were measured.


A significant increase of serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations were observed between OVX rats when compared with Group 1, while there was no significant difference in the activity of B-ALP, serum Ca, P, and Mg among all groups. A remarkable significant decrease of serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha was observed in the group of rats that were fed with FS (Groups 3 and 4) and FO (Groups 5 and 6).


This study suggests that FS and FO might be useful in the prevention of estrogen-deficiency induced osteoporosis via decreasing osteoclastogenesis. Further studies are needed to demonstrate their efficacy in humans by using bioactive components of FS, and to clarify their mechanism of action.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center