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World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Apr 7;17(13):1685-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i13.1685.

Therapeutic options for intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Department of General Surgery, Digestive Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100016, China.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, ranking the sixth in the world, with 55% of cases occurring in China. Usually, patients with HCC did not present until the late stage of the disease, thus limiting their therapeutic options. Although surgical resection is a potentially curative modality for HCC, most patients with intermediate-advanced HCC are not suitable candidates. The current therapeutic modalities for intermediate-advanced HCC include: (1) surgical procedures, such as radical resection, palliative resection, intraoperative radiofrequency ablation or cryosurgical ablation, intraoperative hepatic artery and portal vein chemotherapeutic pump placement, two-stage hepatectomy and liver transplantation; (2) interventional treatment, such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, portal vein embolization and image-guided locoregional therapies; and (3) molecularly targeted therapies. So far, how to choose the therapeutic modalities remains controversial. Surgeons are faced with the challenge of providing the most appropriate treatment for patients with intermediate-advanced HCC. This review focuses on the optional therapeutic modalities for intermediate-advanced HCC.


Hepatocellular carcinoma; Intermediate-advanced; Interventional treatment; Molecularly targeted therapy; Surgical procedure

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