Send to

Choose Destination
Prim Care Diabetes. 2011 Oct;5(3):185-94. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2011.03.001. Epub 2011 Apr 11.

Profiles of smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes: initial visit at a diabetes education centers.

Author information

Ryerson University, School of Nutrition, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3.



This study explores differences in psychosocial, behavioral and clinical characteristics among smoking and non-smoking individuals with diabetes attending diabetes education centers (DEC).


A questionnaire was administered to 275 individuals with type 2 diabetes attending two DECs between October 2003 and 2005. The participants' characteristics were analyzed and multivariable linear and ordinal regressions were performed to adjust for variables correlated with smoking.


Findings revealed that smokers, compared to non-smokers, had lower outcome expectations of the benefits of self-management, lower diastolic blood pressure, and followed their recommended diet and tested blood glucose levels less often than non-smokers. Smokers also had lower intentions to use resources outside and within the DEC.


Results demonstrate poorer self-care behaviors among smokers compared to non-smokers and further suggest cognitive and behavioral differences between smokers and non-smokers regarding participation and attitudes toward self-management practices. These findings identify issues that need to be addressed in diabetes self-management programs to allow for more effective interventions tailored to the healthcare needs of this specific population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center