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Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011 May;64(5):373-8. doi: 10.1016/j.recesp.2010.11.011. Epub 2011 Apr 9.

[Connection between the early phases of kidney disease and the metabolic syndrome].

[Article in Spanish]

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Departamento de Medicina Interna, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, España.



Advanced kidney disease is a major health problem due to its association with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of advanced kidney disease is the mainstay to avoid its progression. Since metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are risk factors for both cardiovascular and advanced kidney disease, we investigated the relationship of early kidney disease (EKD) with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and their association with surrogate markers of arteriosclerosis.


We studied 1498 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined as HOMA ≥3.7 mmol (μU)/L(2) and EKD as stages 1 and 2 of the NKF-KDOQI. Carotid intima-media thickness was used as a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis.


The presence of one trait of metabolic syndrome was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for EKD of 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-4.48) that increased to 6.72 (95% CI, 3.56-13.69) in subjects with the syndrome. All the traits of the syndrome except low level of high-density lipoproteins showed an increased OR for EKD. Increasing HOMA was also directly correlated with higher OR for EKD, being as high as 3.89 (95% CI, 1.99-7.59) for subjects in the fourth quartile. Subjects with the syndrome plus EKD showed an increased intima-media thickness compared with those without kidney disease.


Insulin resistance and all metabolic syndrome traits except low level of high-density lipoproteins were significantly associated with an increased OR for EKD. Both metabolic syndrome and EKD were independently and additively related to the presence of surrogate markers of arteriosclerosis.

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