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Chem Soc Rev. 2011 Jul;40(7):4143-66. doi: 10.1039/c0cs00179a. Epub 2011 Apr 11.

Aryl diazonium salts: a new class of coupling agents for bonding polymers, biomacromolecules and nanoparticles to surfaces.

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Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation & Dynamique des Systèmes (ITODYS Lab), University Paris Diderot & CNRS, 15 rue Jean-Antoine de Baïf, 75013 Paris, France.


This critical review summarizes existing knowledge on the use of diazonium salts as a new generation of surface modifiers and coupling agents for binding synthetic polymers, biomacromolecules, and nanoparticles to surfaces. Polymer grafts can be directly grown at surfaces through the so-called grafting from approaches based on several polymerization methods but can also be pre-formed in solution and then grafted to surfaces through grafting onto strategies including "click" reactions. Several routes are also described for binding biomacromolecules through aryl layers in view of developing biosensors and protein arrays, while the use of aryl diazonium coupling agents is extended to the attachment of nanoparticles. Patents and industrial applications of the surface chemistry of diazonium compounds are covered. This review stresses the paramount role of aryl diazonium coupling agents in adhesion, surface and materials sciences (114 references).

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