Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur Respir J. 2011 Nov;38(5):1165-72. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00020811. Epub 2011 Apr 8.

Microbial evaluation of proton-pump inhibitors and the risk of pneumonia.

Author information

  • 1Dept of Internal Medicine, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.


Recent initiation of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment may increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hypothetically by allowing colonisation of the oropharynx by gastrointestinal bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the causal pathway by considering microbial aetiology of pneumonia and indications for initiation of PPI treatment. This was a population-based, case-control study with 430 cases with pneumonia and 1,720 matched controls. An elaborate diagnostic protocol was used to identify the causative microorganism of pneumonia. For patients recently starting PPI treatment, indications for treatment were assessed. Recent initiation of PPI treatment (<30 days) was associated with an increased risk of CAP (adjusted OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-7.1). Oropharyngeal bacteria were evenly distributed among current users, past users and nonusers of PPIs (p=0.41). Gastrointestinal bacteria were identified in only five (1.2%) patients with pneumonia (two current users and three nonusers). Excluding patients who were possibly prescribed PPI treatment for early symptoms of pneumonia (protopathic bias) did not alter the study findings. This study reaffirmed that use of PPIs is associated with an increased risk of CAP, especially when treatment has recently been started. Neither protopathic bias nor shifts in microbial aetiology seem to explain the association.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center