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Brain. 2011 May;134(Pt 5):1400-15. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr047. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Overexpression of the autophagic beclin-1 protein clears mutant ataxin-3 and alleviates Machado-Joseph disease.

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1
Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Largo Marquês de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal.

Abstract

Machado-Joseph disease, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, is the most common of the dominantly inherited ataxias worldwide and is characterized by mutant ataxin-3 misfolding, intracellular accumulation of aggregates and neuronal degeneration. Here we investigated the implication of autophagy, the major pathway for organelle and protein turnover, in the accumulation of mutant ataxin-3 aggregates and neurodegeneration found in Machado-Joseph disease and we assessed whether specific stimulation of this pathway could mitigate the disease. Using tissue from patients with Machado-Joseph disease, transgenic mice and a lentiviral-based rat model, we found an abnormal expression of endogenous autophagic markers, accumulation of autophagosomes and decreased levels of beclin-1, a crucial protein in the early nucleation step of autophagy. Lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of beclin-1 led to stimulation of autophagic flux, mutant ataxin-3 clearance and overall neuroprotective effects in neuronal cultures and in a lentiviral-based rat model of Machado-Joseph disease. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a key degradation pathway, with beclin-1 playing a significant role in alleviating Machado-Joseph disease pathogenesis.

PMID:
21478185
DOI:
10.1093/brain/awr047
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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