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Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011 May;5(3):198-205. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2010.00191.x. Epub 2011 Jan 25.

Immunization with 1976 swine H1N1- or 2009 pandemic H1N1-inactivated vaccines protects mice from a lethal 1918 influenza infection.

Author information

1
Viral Pathogenesis and Evolution Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3203, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Zoonotic infections with H1N1 influenza viruses that evolved initially from the 1918 virus (1918) and adapted to swine threatened a pandemic in 1976 (1976 swH1N1) and a novel reassortant H1N1 virus caused a pandemic in 2009-2010 (2009 pH1N1). Epidemiological and laboratory animal studies show that protection from severe 2009 pH1N1 infection is conferred by vaccination or prior infection with 1976 swH1N1 or 1918.

OBJECTIVES:

Our aim was to demonstrate cross-protection by immunization with 2009 pH1N1 or 1976 swH1N1 vaccines following a lethal challenge with 1918. Further, the mechanisms of cross-protective antibody responses were evaluated.

METHODS:

Mice were immunized with 1976 swH1N1, 2009 pH1N1, 2009 seasonal trivalent, or 1918 vaccines and challenged with 1918. Cross-reactive antibody responses were assessed and protection monitored by survival, weight loss, and pathology in mice.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

Vaccination with the 1976 swH1N1 or 2009 pH1N1 vaccines protected mice from a lethal challenge with 1918, and these mice lost no weight and had significantly reduced viral load and pathology in the lungs. Protection was likely due to cross-reactive antibodies detected by microneutralization assay. Our data suggest that the general population may be protected from a future 1918-like pandemic because of prior infection or immunization with 1976 swH1N1 or 2009 pH1N1. Also, influenza protection studies generally focus on cross-reactive hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies; while hemagglutinin is the primary surface antigen, this fails to account for other influenza viral antigens. Neutralizing antibody may be a better correlate of human protection against pathogenic influenza strains and should be considered for vaccine efficacy.

PMID:
21477139
PMCID:
PMC3073596
DOI:
10.1111/j.1750-2659.2010.00191.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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