Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Oct 1;118(1):31-9. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.02.013. Epub 2011 Apr 6.

Childhood physical punishment and the onset of drinking problems: evidence from metropolitan China.

Author information

Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Health (Peking University), No. 51 Huayuan Bei Rd., Beijing 100191, China.



Evidence in support of a suspected causal association linking childhood physical punishment (CPP) and later alcoholic beverage-related disturbances has been found in metropolitan China. Here, the focus shifts to the CPP association with the estimated risk of starting to drink, having the first drinking problem, and transitioning from first drink to the first drinking problem.


Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys-metropolitan China study, with representative samples of adult household residents living in two metropolitan cities, Beijing and Shanghai. Recalled information was available for early life experiences (including CPP, other childhood adversities, and parental alcohol and drug problems), as well as the onset age of drinking and drinking problems. Survival analyses were used to estimate the Hazard Ratio. A structural equation modeling approach was used to control for other inter-correlated childhood adversities.


Cox proportional hazards modeling discloses statistically robust associations linking CPP with drinking and drinking problems, as well as more rapid transitions from first drink to first drinking problem, even after accounting for other childhood adversities and parental drinking problems. These associations cannot be attributed to a more general noxious family environment.


These results lay a foundation for future experimental studies on the possible causal relationship linking CPP with the onset of drinking problems and the transition from drinking to drinking problems.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center