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Electrolyte Blood Press. 2009 Dec;7(2):38-41. doi: 10.5049/EBP.2009.7.2.38. Epub 2009 Dec 31.

Water and sodium regulation in heart failure.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.


Heart failure is the pathophysiological state characterized by ventricular dysfunction and associated clinical symptoms. Decreased cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance lead to arterial underfilling. That is an important signal which triggers multiple neurohormonal systems to maintain adequate arterial pressure and peripheral perfusion of the vital organs. The kidney is the principal organ affected when cardiac output declines. Alterations of hemodynamics and neurohormonal systems in heart failure result in renal sodium and water retention. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic vasopressin release stimulate the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. Dysregulation of aquaporin-2 and sodium transporters also play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention.


aquaporins; epithelial sodium channel; heart failure; sodium chloride symporters; sodium-potassium-chloride symporters

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