Send to

Choose Destination
J Pak Med Assoc. 2011 Mar;61(3):308-12.

Health related quality of life in pregnant women: a comparison between urban and rural populations.

Author information

Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad.



To study mental and physical health of pregnant women and compare the differences between those residing in urban and rural settings.


A Cross-Sectional Survey was conducted on pregnant women (n=179) in urban and rural areas of Islamabad in January 2009. SF-12, a validated instrument for mental and physical health assessment was used and translated into Urdu. Responses were decoded as per SF-12 analysis protocol. Independent sample t-test was done to compare the quantitative variables. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. The survey was filled either by the participant or the research team and was anonymous. All the researchers were trained in the interview technique in order to make sure that each question carried the same meaning during the actual survey. This was done to standardize the survey methodology.


A total of 179 survey forms were collected, 83 and 96 from both rural and urban areas respectively. Role Limitations because of Physical Problems (p=0.020), General Health Perceptions (p=0.001) and Role Limitations because of Emotional Problems (p=0.023) had statistically significantly lower scores in rural women as compared to urban women.


Self-perceived mental and physical health was better in urban pregnant women than in rural women.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Pakistan Medical Association
Loading ...
Support Center