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Vaccine. 2011 May 23;29(23):4003-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.03.067. Epub 2011 Apr 2.

H9N2 avian influenza virus-like particle vaccine provides protective immunity and a strategy for the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals.

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  • 1Avian Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea.


In the present study, virus-like particles (VLPs) were evaluated as a candidate poultry vaccine against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2. Specific pathogen-free chickens received a single injection of the VLP vaccine expressing HA and M1 protein of AIV H9N2 (H9 HA VLP) at escalating doses in the presence or absence of ISA70 water-in-oil adjuvant. At 3 weeks post vaccination, we performed hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine serological immune responses, and challenge studies using SPF chickens. A single dose of H9 HA VLP vaccine induced high levels of HI antibodies and lowered frequencies of virus isolation after the wild-type virus challenge. The addition of ISA70 adjuvant significantly increased the immunogenicity of H9 HA VLP vaccines. Furthermore, it allows differentiation of AIV-infected chickens from vaccinated chickens with an ELISA using nucleocapsid antigen, which offers a promising strategy to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). These results provide support for continued development of the VLP as an animal vaccine against influenza virus.

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