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AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 May;25(5):287-93. doi: 10.1089/apc.2011.0003. Epub 2011 Apr 2.

Prevalence of sexually acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a community sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in New York City.

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Institute for International Research on Youth at Risk National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, New York 10010, USA.


To examine antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance, we recruited a community sample (n=347) of sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City, each of whom completed a structured interview and donated a blood sample for HIV genotyping. Participants reported high levels of sexual activity, with 94.6% reporting at least one sexual contact in the past month, and an average of 3.13 partners during this time. Anal intercourse was common, with 70.7% reporting at least one act of insertive anal intercourse (21% of whom reported ejaculating inside their partner without a condom) and 62.1% reporting at least one act of receptive anal intercourse during this time (22.6% of whom received ejaculate without a condom). Seventeen percent reported having sex with a woman in the past year. Although 17.4% of participants reported having ever injected drugs, no association was found between injection and antiretroviral resistance. Average HIV diagnosis was 12.1 years prior to the interview, and 92.1% had taken ARV medication. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were widely reported, with 78% having been diagnosed with an STI since being diagnosed with HIV. A genotype was obtained for 188 (54.7%) of the samples and 44.7% revealed mutations conferring resistance to at least one ARV. Resistance to at least one ARV within a given class of medication was most common for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (30.3%) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (27.7%) and least common for protease inhibitors (18.1%). The combination of high prevalence of antiretroviral resistance and risky sexual practices makes transmission between sex partners a likely mode of acquisition.

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