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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Oct 1;118(1):48-55. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.02.019. Epub 2011 Mar 31.

Contingency management with community reinforcement approach or twelve-step facilitation drug counseling for cocaine dependent pregnant women or women with young children.

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Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St. -S205, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.



Cocaine abuse among women of child-bearing years is a significant public health problem. This study evaluated the efficacy of contingency management (CM), the community reinforcement approach (CRA), and twelve-step facilitation (TSF) for cocaine-dependent pregnant women or women with young children.


Using a 2×2 study design, 145 cocaine dependent women were randomized to 24 weeks of CRA or TSF and to monetary vouchers provided contingent on cocaine-negative urine tests (CM) or non-contingently but yoked in value (voucher control, VC). Primary outcome measures included the longest consecutive period of documented abstinence, proportion of cocaine-negative urine tests (obtained twice-weekly), and percent days using cocaine (PDC) during treatment. Documented cocaine abstinence at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following randomization was a secondary outcome.


CM was associated with significantly greater duration of cocaine abstinence (p<.01), higher proportion of cocaine-negative urine tests (p<0.01), and higher proportion of documented abstinence across the 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month assessments (p<0.05), compared to VC. The differences between CRA and TSF were not significant for any of these measures (all p values ≥0.75). PDC decreased significantly from baseline during treatment in all four groups (p<0.001) but did not differ significantly between CM and VC (p=0.10) or between TSF and CRA (p=0.23).


The study findings support the efficacy of CM for cocaine dependent pregnant women and women with young children but do not support greater efficacy of CRA compared to TSF or differential efficacy of CM when paired with either CRA or TSF.

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