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Chemosphere. 2011 Jul;84(5):695-700. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.03.022. Epub 2011 Mar 31.

Residual veterinary antibiotics in swine manure from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China.

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State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.


The scientific interest in the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during the past decades because of the emergence and development of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. This study developed a method for simultaneous detection of five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine manure with stable recoveries (73.0-110.6%) and high sensitivity (limit of quantification <90 μg kg(-1)). Thereafter, a total of 126 swine manure samples, collected from 21 concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in Shandong Province of China during summer and winter, were analyzed. The potential influences of different sampling seasons, swine types and food sources on residual antibiotic concentrations were examined in detail. The maximum concentration of residual antibiotic could reach up to 764.4 mg kg(-1) (chlortetracycline), and the detection frequencies were 84.9-96.8% for tetracyclines, 0.8-51.6% for sulfonamides and 4.8% for macrolide. These data reveal that antibiotics were extensively used in CAFOs in this district and the manure may act as a non-specific source of antibiotic residue in farmlands and aquatic environments.

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