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J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 15;203(8):1043-53. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiq162.

Smallpox vaccine safety is dependent on T cells and not B cells.

Author information

1
Animal Models and Retroviral Vaccines Section, 9000 Rockville Pike NCI, 41/D804, Bethesda, MD 20892-5065, USA.

Abstract

The licensed smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000, is a cell culture derivative of Dryvax. Both ACAM2000 and Dryvax are administered by skin scarification and can cause progressive vaccinia, with skin lesions that disseminate to distal sites. We have investigated the immunologic basis of the containment of vaccinia in the skin with the goal to identify safer vaccines for smallpox. Macaques were depleted systemically of T or B cells and vaccinated with either Dryvax or an attenuated vaccinia vaccine, LC16m8. B cell depletion did not affect the size of skin lesions induced by either vaccine. However, while depletion of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells had no adverse effects on LC16m8-vaccinated animals, it caused progressive vaccinia in macaques immunized with Dryvax. As both Dryvax and LC16m8 vaccines protect healthy macaques from a lethal monkeypox intravenous challenge, our data identify LC16m8 as a safer and effective alternative to ACAM2000 and Dryvax vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.

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PMID:
21450994
PMCID:
PMC3068024
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiq162
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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