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Magn Reson Med. 2011 Jun;65(6):1570-7. doi: 10.1002/mrm.22922. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Real-time functional MRI using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

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Functional MRI Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA.


The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of arterial spin labeling-based functional magnetic resonance imaging time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing, and regression analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses and interactively selects a region of interest as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive pulse repetition times. This method is demonstrated by two functional imaging experiments: a simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation paradigm, and a bimanual finger-tapping task.

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