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Liver Transpl. 2011 Apr;17(4):402-8. doi: 10.1002/lt.22247.

Risk factors of lung, head and neck, esophageal, and kidney and urinary tract carcinomas after liver transplantation: the effect of smoking withdrawal.

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Liver Unit, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.


Liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of malignancy. Smoking is related to some of the most frequent causes of posttransplant malignancy. The incidence and risk factors for the development of neoplasia related to smoking (head and neck, lung, esophageal, and kidney and urinary tract carcinomas) were studied in 339 liver transplant recipients. Risk factors for the development of smoking-related neoplasia were also studied in 135 patients who had a history of smoking so that it could be determined whether smoking withdrawal was associated with a lower risk of malignancy. After a mean follow-up of 7.5 years, 26 patients were diagnosed with 29 smoking-related malignancies. The 5- and 10-year actuarial rates were 5% and 13%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, smoking and older age were independently associated with a higher risk of malignancy. In the smoker subgroup, the variables related to a higher risk of malignancy were active smoking and older age. In conclusion, smoking withdrawal after liver transplantation may have a protective effect against the development of neoplasia.

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