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Ann Vasc Surg. 2011 Nov;25(8):1154-64. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2011.01.002. Epub 2011 Mar 25.

The nutcracker syndrome.

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1
Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Abstract

Left renal vein (LRV) compression, commonly referred to as the nutcracker syndrome or renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a rare and often overlooked condition. Anatomically, the LRV traverses the space between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta in close proximity to the origin of the artery. In affected individuals, the LRV is subjected to compression between these two structures, resulting in renal venous hypertension. A review of published data on this condition reveals either case reports or small case series. The classic symptoms of nutcracker syndrome include left flank pain with gross or microscopic hematuria. Patients are often children or young adults, with a slight predisposition for women who may also present with pelvic congestion symptoms such as pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Most patients have disease symptoms for many years and nondiagnostic investigations before proper diagnosis can be made. Appropriate diagnostic work-up and treatment may help alleviate patient morbidity from this chronic condition. Although surgical repair has been the standard of care, more recently endovascular intervention has become the first line of therapy. This tabular review compiles published cases in the adult population during the period between 1980 and 2009.

PMID:
21439772
DOI:
10.1016/j.avsg.2011.01.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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