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Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2009 Sep 25;2:165-72.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as stimulants of angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

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University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.


The incidence of diabetes is directly related to the incidence of obesity, which is at epidemic proportions in the US. Cardiovascular disease is a common complication of diabetes, which results in high morbidity and mortality. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPAR-α agonists such as fenofibrate and PPAR-γ agonists such as the thiozolidinediones have been used to treat dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in diabetes. Over the past few years research has discovered the role of PPARs in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Clinical trials looking at the effect of PPAR agonists on cardiovascular outcomes have produced controversial results. Studies looking at angiogenesis and proliferation in various animal models and cell lines have shown a wide variation in results. This may be due to the differential effects of PPARs on proliferation and angiogenesis in various tissues and pathologic states. This review discusses the role of PPARs in stimulating angiogenesis. It also reviews the settings in which stimulation of angiogenesis may be either beneficial or harmful.


PPAR; VEGF; angiogenesis; cardiovascular

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