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Environ Health Prev Med. 2000 Oct;5(3):90-6. doi: 10.1265/ehpm.2000.90.

Lifestyle-related risk factors for total and cancer mortality in men and women.

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Department of Community Health Science, Saga Medical School, Saga, Japan,


We conducted a 14-year follow-up study to analyze the hazard ratio (HR) of mortality regarding lifestyle-related factors in Saga Prefecture, Japan. The subjects included 2,170 people, who were randomly selected from men and women aged from 40 to 69 years old, and who also completed the standardized questionnaire on lifestyle in 1983. Information about death and corresponding data were obtained either by mail and/or through the city offices in 1997. We found that a lower body weight, a lower physical fitness level, not consuming a balanced diet, and cigarette smoking to be significantly elevated risks for all-causes of death in males after adjustment by age and health status. In addition, these results did not change even after excluding subjects for early death. The HR of the female subjects who quit smoking was significantly high, although it changed to insignificant after excluding subjects for early death. These results suggested that being underweight might be an index of a positive risk of death, while maintaining a higher physical fitness level, being careful to consume a more balanced diet, and non smoking all appear to be indexes of a negative risk of death. In addition, these results might also be considered good evidence for improving poor health habits in health promotion activities.


Lifestyle; Mortality; body mass index; physical activity; prospective cohort study; smoking

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