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Environ Health Prev Med. 2005 Sep;10(5):303-14. doi: 10.1007/BF02897706.

BSE safety standards: An evaluation of public health policies of Japan, Europe, and USA.

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Department of Health for Senior Citizens, Division of Preventive Medicine, Social Medicine Cluster, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15 West 7, Kita-ku, 060-8638, Sapporo, Japan.


Since the advent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986, new BSE cases have recently become rare. However, in Japan and the United States, positive cases have started to be seen recently. The rise in BSE cases paved the way for the human form of this disease, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The observed trends in the UK may be attributed to effective implementation of public health policies coupled with increased vigilance through advancement in science and technology, or they may well be a reflection of the natural disease progression. We aim to discuss the BSE chronology of events, and compare examination methods, costs and cost-efficiency, management, and public policies of Japan, Europe, and the USA.


Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; mad cow disease; public health policy; transmissible spongiform encephalopathy

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