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Heart Fail Rev. 2011 May;16(3):263-76. doi: 10.1007/s10741-010-9215-1.

Atrioventricular and interventricular delay optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy: physiological principles and overview of available methods.

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1
Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, P.O. Box 1350, 5602 ZA Eindhoven, The Netherlands. cardiology@houthuizen.be

Abstract

In this review, the physiological rationale for atrioventricular and interventricular delay optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy is discussed including the influence of exercise and long-term cardiac resynchronization therapy. The broad spectrum of both invasive and non-invasive optimization methods is reviewed with critical appraisal of the literature. Although the spectrum of both invasive and non-invasive optimization methods is broad, no single method can be recommend for standard practice as large-scale studies using hard endpoints are lacking. Current efforts mainly investigate optimization during resting conditions; however, there is a need to develop automated algorithms to implement dynamic optimization in order to adapt to physiological alterations during exercise and after anatomical remodeling.

PMID:
21431901
PMCID:
PMC3074065
DOI:
10.1007/s10741-010-9215-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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