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Int J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct;16(5):533-8. doi: 10.1007/s10147-011-0224-4. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Combination therapy consisting of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and docetaxel as an active treatment for advanced urothelial carcinoma.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Akita University School of Medicine, Hondo 1-1-1, Akita, Akita, Japan.



To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a combination chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and docetaxel (GCD) in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) as a phase II trial.


Patients with metastatic or locally advanced unresectable UC were eligible for this trial. All enrolled patients were considered to be "unfit" for cisplatin-based chemotherapy, or to have methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatin (MVAC)-refractory UC. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, and carboplatin (with a target area under the curve of 5) and docetaxel 70 mg/m(2) on day 1; this was repeated every 21 days.


Thirty-five patients were enrolled, with a median age of 68 years. A total of 89 cycles were administered (median, 2 cycles). Major toxicities were Grade 3/4 neutropenia in 28 (80.0%) patients and Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 18 (51.5%). An objective response rate (ORR) was 11 of 21 patients (52.4%), including a complete response in 1 (4.8%). The median overall survival (OS) was 13.1 months (1-year survival rate, 60%) and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.0 months. Among 16 patients who had previously received MVAC, the ORR, the median PFS, the median OS and 1-year survival rate was 56.3%, 5.0 months, 12.6 months and 54%, respectively.


GCD chemotherapy is active and well tolerated as a first- or second-line therapy for patients with advanced UC. Response rate, duration and survival did not differ between those with and without a history of MVAC treatment.

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