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Chem Soc Rev. 2011 Jul;40(7):3764-85. doi: 10.1039/c0cs00121j. Epub 2011 Mar 22.

Hierarchical assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks: bio-inspired rigid structural functional materials.

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Division of Nanomaterials and Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China.


The huge diversity of hierarchical micro-/nano-rigid structures existing in biological systems is increasingly becoming a source of inspiration of materials scientists and engineers to create next-generation advanced functional materials. In the past decades, these multiscale hierarchical structures have been intensively investigated to show their contributions to high performance in mechanical properties. Recently, accompanied with the development of nanotechnology, some biologically hierarchical rigid structures have been duplicated and mimicked in artificial materials through hierarchical organization of micro-/nano-building blocks. In this critical review, we will present biological rigid structural models, functional micro-/nano-building blocks, and hierarchical assembly techniques for the manufacture of bio-inspired rigid structural functional materials (177 references).

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