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Mol Ecol Resour. 2011 Jan;11(1):141-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02885.x.

COANCESTRY: a program for simulating, estimating and analysing relatedness and inbreeding coefficients.

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Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, UK.


The software package COANCESTRY implements seven relatedness estimators and three inbreeding estimators to estimate relatedness and inbreeding coefficients from multilocus genotype data. Two likelihood estimators that allow for inbred individuals and account for genotyping errors are for the first time included in this user-friendly program for PCs running Windows operating system. A simulation module is built in the program to simulate multilocus genotype data of individuals with a predefined relationship, and to compare the estimators and the simulated relatedness values to facilitate the selection of the best estimator in a particular situation. Bootstrapping and permutations are used to obtain the 95% confidence intervals of each relatedness or inbreeding estimate, and to test the difference in averages between groups.

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