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Nano Lett. 2011 Apr 13;11(4):1443-7. doi: 10.1021/nl103925m. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Stoichiometry engineering of monoclinic to rutile phase transition in suspended single crystalline vanadium dioxide nanobeams.

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  • 1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.


Coexisting monoclinic M(1) (insulating) and rutile (metallic) domains were observed in free-standing vanadium dioxide nanobeams at room temperature. Similar domain structures have been attributed to interfacial strain, which was not present here. Annealing under reducing conditions indicated that a deficiency of oxygen stabilizes the rutile phase to temperatures as low as 103 K, which represents an unprecedented suppression of the phase transition by 238 K. In a complementary manner, oxygen-rich growth conditions stabilize the metastable monoclinic M(2) and triclinic T (or M(3)) phases. A pseudophase diagram with dimensions of temperature and stoichiometry is established that highlights the accessibility of new phases in the nanobeam geometry.

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