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Cancer. 2011 Apr 1;117(7):1463-9. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25598. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

Outcomes after induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA. celeste.bello@moffitt.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from an antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/myeloproliferative neoplasm is associated with a poor prognosis. The authors evaluated predictive factors in patients with secondary AML treated with anthracycline-based induction therapy.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective review of secondary AML patients treated with induction therapy. Age, International Prognostic Scoring System, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, cytogenetics, duration of MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm, and prior MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm treatment were evaluated for their impact on complete response (CR), CR with low platelets, and overall survival (OS).

RESULTS:

The authors evaluated 61 secondary AML patients who received induction chemotherapy; 59% (36 patients) achieved CR/CR with low platelets (95% confidence interval [CI], 46%-71%), and median OS was 6.5 (95% CI, 3.9-8.1) months. Three factors were associated with lower CR/CR with low platelets and OS: poor risk cytogenetics, prior treatment with hypomethylating agents or lenalidomide, and longer time to transformation to AML. Of those treated with hypomethylating agents or lenalidomide, 32% achieved CR/CR with low platelets versus 78% in the group not treated with a hypomethylating agent or lenalidomide (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.42). Median OS for those treated with a hypomethylating agent or lenalidomide was 3.7 versus 10.5 months for those not treated with a hypomethylating agent or lenalidomide (P < .0001). The CR/CR with low platelets rate for those with intermediate risk cytogenetics was 70% versus 35% for those with poor risk (OR, 4.33; 95% CI, 1.38-13.6). Those with poor risk cytogenetics had a median OS of 2.8 versus 7.5 months for those with intermediate risk (P = .01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Prior treatment with hypomethylating agents or lenalidomide, poor risk cytogenetics, and longer time to transformation to AML are independent negative predictive factors for response and OS in patients with secondary AML after induction therapy.

PMID:
21425147
PMCID:
PMC4545502
DOI:
10.1002/cncr.25598
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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