Send to

Choose Destination
Cancer. 2011 Apr 1;117(7):1438-45. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25635. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

Expectant management versus immediate treatment for low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : a randomized trial in Canada and Brazil.

Author information

Ontario Clinical Oncology Group, Department of Oncology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.



The optimal management strategy for women with low-grade biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is not clear. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of regular colposcopic follow-up and treatment of progressive disease only versus immediate treatment.


Data were accrued between November 2000 and March 2006 for a noninferiority randomized clinical trial of 415 women with biopsy-proven grade 1 CIN from 8 Canadian and 2 Brazilian colposcopy clinics. Subjects were randomly assigned to either undergo immediate treatment with a loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) or receive regular colposcopic follow-up for 18 months. The primary outcome was progression of disease to CIN 2 to 3 was based on histology obtained during 18 months of follow-up. Treatments were compared using differences of proportion with a 9% noninferiority margin. Analysis was conducted on the basis of intention-to-treat.


An initial LEEP was performed on 179 women. Disease progression was found in 32. Easily controlled vaginal bleeding occurred in 16 (8.9%). During follow-up, disease progression was identified in 3 (1.7%) women in the immediate treatment arm and 9 (4.4%) in the colposcopic follow-up arm-a tolerable difference of 2.7% with 1-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) upper limit of 6.0%. Compliance with all 3 follow-up visits was 61% overall, but significantly worse in women ≤30 years of age (P < .05).


The risk of progression to CIN grade 2 or 3 or cancer over 18 months was similar in the 2 treatment groups. In Canada and Brazil, follow-up for 18 months is a reasonable management strategy for women with persistent low-grade cytology who are found to have grade 1 CIN on referral for colposcopy and cervical biopsy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center